A concussion may occur when the head hits an object, or a moving object strikes the head. A concussion is a less severe type of brain injury. It may also be called a traumatic brain injury. A concussion can affect how the brain works. The amount of brain injury and how long it will last depends on how severe the concussion is. A concussion may lead to headaches, changes in alertness, loss of consciousnessmemory loss, and changes in thinking.
A concussion can result from a fall, sports activities, vehicular accidents, assault, or other direct injury to the skull. A big movement of the brain called jarring in any direction can cause a person to lose alertness become unconscious.
How long the person stays unconscious may be a sign of how bad the concussion is. Concussions do not always lead to loss of consciousness. Most people never pass out.
They may describe seeing all white, all black, or stars. A person can also have a concussion and not realize it. The following are emergency symptoms of a more severe head injury or concussion. Seek medical care right away if there are:. Head injuries that cause a concussion often occur with injury to the neck and spine. Take special care when moving people who have had a head injury.
The health care provider will perform a physical exam. The person's nervous system will be checked. There may be changes in the person's pupil size, thinking ability, coordination, and reflexes.Glen Davis Suffers A Concussion
For a mild head injury, no treatment may be needed. But be aware that the symptoms of a head injury can show up later. Your providers will explain what to expect, how to manage any headaches, how to treat your other symptoms, when to return to sports, school, work, and other activities, and signs or symptoms to worry about.
Both adults and children must follow the provider's instructions about when it will be possible to return to sports. Healing or recovering from a concussion takes time. It may take days to weeks, or even months. During that time you may:.
These problems will probably recover slowly. You may want to get help from family or friends for making important decisions. In a small number of people, symptoms of the concussion do not go away. The risk for these long-term changes in the brain is higher after more than one concussion. Seizures may occur after more severe head injuries. You or your child may need to take anti-seizure medicines for a period of time. Not all head injuries can be prevented. Increase safety for you and your child by following these steps:.
Do not drink and drive. Do not allow yourself to be driven by someone who may have been drinking alcohol or is otherwise impaired.Concussionalso known as mild traumatic brain injury mTBIis a head injury that temporarily affects brain functioning.
Common causes include motor vehicle collisionsfallssports injuriesand bicycle accidents. Prevention of concussions includes the use of a helmet when bicycling or motorbiking.
Worldwide, concussions are estimated to affect more than 3. Concussions symptoms vary between people and include physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms. Headaches are the most common mTBI symptom. Visual symptoms include light sensitivity seeing bright lights,  blurred vision and double vision. They are not associated with any particular sequelae and have the same high rate of favorable outcomes as concussions without convulsions.
Cognitive symptoms include confusion, disorientationand difficulty focusing attention. Loss of consciousness may occur, but is not necessarily correlated with the severity of the concussion if it is brief. A concussion can result in changes in mood including crankiness, loss of interest in favorite activities or items,  tearfulness,  and displays of emotion that are inappropriate to the situation.
The brain is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluidwhich protects it from light trauma. More severe impacts, or the forces associated with rapid acceleration, may not be absorbed by this cushion. Forces may cause linear, rotational, or angular movement of the brain or a combination of them. The parts of the brain most affected by rotational forces are the midbrain and diencephalon.
In both animals and humans, mTBI can alter the brain's physiology for hours to years,   setting into motion a variety of pathological events. Included in the cascade of events unleashed in the brain by concussion is impaired neurotransmissionloss of regulation of ionsderegulation of energy use and cellular metabolism, and a reduction in cerebral blood flow.
At the same time, cerebral blood flow is relatively reduced for unknown reasons,  though the reduction in blood flow is not as severe as it is in ischemia. Concurrently with these processes, the activity of mitochondria may be reduced, which causes cells to rely on anaerobic metabolism to produce energy, increasing levels of the byproduct lactate. For a period of minutes to days after a concussion, the brain is especially vulnerable to changes in intracranial pressureblood flow, and anoxia.
Concussion involves diffuse as opposed to focal brain injurymeaning that the dysfunction occurs over a widespread area of the brain rather than in a particular spot. This damage, the severity of which increases with the cumulative number of concussions sustained, can lead to a variety of other health issues.
The debate over whether concussion is a functional or structural phenomenon is ongoing.Eversor assassin datasheet
Using animal studies, the pathology of a concussion seems to start with mechanical shearing and stretching forces disrupting the cell membrane of nerve cells through "mechanoporation". A completely separate pathway involves a large amount of calcium accumulating in cells, which may impair oxidative metabolism and begin further biochemical pathways that result in cell death.This issue has never come up in the CICM exam, perhaps because it is the least serious form of traumatic brain injury.
However, it comes up in discussion. Specifically, it is important to be able to use this word correctly, knowing precisely what it means, and being able to descend smoothly into academic gibberish commotio cerebrietc.
8 Common Misconceptions About Concussions
The majority of the information gathered below comes from the massively authoritative Consensus statement on Concussion in Sport The 4th International Conference on Concussion in Sport held in Zurich, November Exploration of this document requires some genuine interest in mild head injury. Generally speaking, the terms "concussion" and "mild traumatic brain injury" are used interchangeably. A more interesting and ICU-worthy question is "why do head-injured patients become unconscious?
These mechanisms or the limitations of our understanding thereof are discussed in a nice review article by Blyth and Bazarian. In short, the affected region must be either both cerebral hemispheres or the brainstem reticular activating system. Four major theories exist, none of which are perfect, but among which the convulsive theory is the most satisfying, as it is supported by the strongest evidence. Alberts, Jay L.
Denny-Brown, Derek, and W. Ritchie Russell. McCrory, Paul, et al. Blyth, Brian J. Hayes, R. Shaw, Nigel A. Previous chapter: Cerebral salt wasting syndrome Next chapter: Haemodialysis in patients with traumatic brain injury.
All SAQs related to this topic. All vivas related to this topic. In brief: Characteristic features defining concussion: Rapid onset of short-lived impairment of neurologic function due to head injury Resolves spontaneously A functional disturbance rather than a structural injury May or may not involve loss of consciousness Generally speaking, the terms "concussion" and "mild traumatic brain injury" are used interchangeably.
Associated symptoms: Loss of consciousness Amnesia Confusion Irritability Slowed "foggy" thinking Sleep distrubance Emotional lability. References Alberts, Jay L. Email Address. Send Message.A knockout blow is a traumatic brain injury or concussion, but not every concussion means a loss of consciousness. Your brain has three big parts. You can lose consciousness if both hemispheres are turned off at once — though if only one is affected, the other can pick up some of the slack.
You can also lose consciousness if part of the brainstem is knocked offline. Brain activity can be affected by a number of things — oxygen can be cut off to certain parts, or a blood vessel might burst. But a blow to the head can also cause a disruption that could lead to a loss of consciousness. Think about the brain as firm jello.
The two hemispheres are heavy, and the brainstem connecting the two hemispheres to the rest of the nervous system is narrow, like the stem of a flower. When the head is moved violently, the brain moves around in the skull. The heaviest part of the brain puts a lot of pressure on the brainstem, which can be twisted and pulled during the blow as the rest of the brain moves out of place.
That twisting and pulling can cause brain circuits to break, or lose their insulation, or get kinked up, and that shuts off parts of the brain. If the part of the brainstem responsible for consciousness is affected, then you would be knocked out.
Thanks to further research into concussions, we now know that, in about 90 percent of diagnosed concussions, there is no loss of consciousness. During any severe blow to the head, the same thing is happening. The brain twists, the circuits can break, and the damage sends the brain into crisis.
But different parts of the brain can be affected. Concussions typically cause vision problems, disorientation, memory loss, headaches, balance issues, and a host of other ailments as the circuits that undergird these functions go down. It depends on the severity of the injury. If you lose consciousness briefly, and suffer a concussion, 75 to 90 percent of people will fully recover in a few months. But severe damage to the brain can cause unconsciousness for days, weeks, or even longer.
If there is internal bleeding or swelling in the brain, surgery may be necessary to relieve pressure on the brain. Severe injuries can also cause lasting effects that vary — including memory loss, paralysisseizures, and lasting behavioral or cognitive changes — depending on the areas of the brain affected.
But in those cases, unconsciousness is a symptom of the injury, not a cause of long term deficits. If the loss of consciousness is very brief — less than a minute — and the other symptoms of a concussion disappear quickly, a visit to a primary care doctor would be sufficient to make sure there is no danger.
Doctors will check to make sure there is no internal bleeding or bruising that can be dangerous. But that is not correct — these are serious injuries that need to be addressed by a doctor or trained professional in order to prevent lasting damage. For athletes, young and old, the risks of a head injury can be mitigated by a lot of factors, including knowledgeable coaches, enforcement of rules meant to limit the risk to players, and even just making sure equipment is in good shape and fits properly.
Those precautions can prevent a lot of harm, and risks should be balanced with the benefits of any sport or physical activity. Michael W. Richardson Michael W. Richardson is a writer and editor based in Brooklyn, New York, covering topics ranging from the brain and behavior to the environment. Every month, we choose one reader question and get an answer from a top neuroscientist.Report Abuse.Netbeans download 8. 2
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I am not sure if the concussions have anything to do with it but I like to know if these symptoms could be something more then just environmental allergies. I had a severe concussion 4 months ago when I fell 10 ft through our attic into the garage on the concrete.
I was unconscious for about 20 - 30 min, I don't remember falling or the ambulance ride to the hospital. I've been to my family doctor since and have had an mri and the mri came back normal. I am still having severe pain in the back of my head where the concussion was.
Hi, My wife fell getting out of the bath and hit her head on the sink and the toilet and knocked herself unconscious. As she was on her own she doesn't know how long she was unconscious but woke up cold on the floor. She was taken to hospital and a CT scan was clear of bleeding or fracture but she was kept in hospital for three days as she was very drowsy and heavily concussed and couldn't stay awake for more than a few minutes at a time.
The answer is yes. A head blow can cause both slow internal bleeding and swelling compressing the pituitary, which controls hormones, which control mood. The outlook is problematic.
In some cases the problem goes away and in others it does not. But I would get an MRI, even if you had one a week ago. Headaches are common after a concussion, by the way. I got a concussion about 3 months ago at a cheer competition when a girl fell and elbowed me in the face.A potential concussion brings questions and sometimes confusion.
A Michigan Medicine sports neurologist debunks several myths about the injury. A concussion is a traumatic brain injury characterized by the head and brain moving rapidly back and forth, striking the inside of the skull. Symptoms vary based on the individual and the severity of the impact. Signs of a concussion may include headache, sensitivity to light or sound, dizziness, sleep problems, nausea, changes in mood, confusion and memory problems.
As publicity about the danger of concussion in contact sports continues to grow, Matthew Lorincz, M. In his own words, Lorincz addressed eight of them, explaining what patients should know:. Not all concussions are the result of a blow to the head.
The cause could be an indirect blow somewhere else on the body that results in the head and brain moving rapidly back and forth. For example, a person in a car accident may sustain a concussion even though he or she had no direct head trauma. A concussion involves the loss of consciousness only about 10 percent of the time.
Pupil dilation is not a reliable sign of concussion, particularly when both pupils are dilated equally.Vb. net instr c#
This can happen when the body is under stress due to excitement, nervousness or anxiety. However, when one pupil is more dilated than the other, it could be the sign of a structural brain injury that requires immediate emergency attention. While checking on the individual within the first four hours of a concussion is important, the risk of a more serious brain injury typically passes after approximately four hours. After that, the individual should be allowed to rest, sleep and conserve energy for the next 48 to 72 hours.
Often, patients experience ongoing fatigue, causing them to sleep during the day and resulting in nighttime insomnia. Over-the-counter acetaminophen Tylenol can be recommended to help reduce pain associated with a concussion but it should not be given until four hours after the concussion due to the rare possibility of a brain bleed.
Other over-the-counter medications that may thin the blood, such as Advil and Aleve, should be avoided altogether within the first 12 hours of a concussion.
After that time, when the possibility of a brain bleed has passed, any OTC pain medication can be taken. There is never a role for opioids in the treatment of a concussion. After the rest period following a concussion, light activity is recommended.
We often recommend a stationary bicycle as a safer way for individuals to begin light activity. These activities may make symptoms worse, especially in the first few days after injury.Did you know that you could save 100 animals per year just by adopting a vegan diet.
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